Manzoni, Gianantonioa; Marrocco, Giacintob
Purpose of review: To review recent publications on the surgical treatment of hypospadias failures, including prognostic factors, which may influence final outcome in hypospadias surgery.
Recent findings: Interim good outcomes for single-stage dorsal inlay grafting in patients with multiple failed repairs would suggest a greater role for this new technique over other available options. Slowly emerging long-term data confirm our suspicion that a good result early on is not necessarily indicative of a satisfactory long-term outcome.
Summary: Hypospadias surgery remains a considerable technical challenge and improvement will come from the development of specialized units.